This report summarizes the existing research on the cognitive science of how children learn, and then connects it to the practical implications for teaching and learning. It explores questions such as, "how do students understand new ideas?" and "what motivates them to learn?" Deans for Impact believes that every aspiring teacher should grapple with -- and be able to answer -- these questions as part of their teacher-training program, and that all educators should be able to connect these principles to classroom practice. The document notes that the entire endeavor should be guided by the growing body of research on basic cognitive principles.