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This report is one component of a wide-ranging study on the education of secondary school teachers in sub-Saharan Africa. It informs and provides direct input into the larger study, which culminates in an Overview Report. The Overview Report is one of 13 background papers which contribute to a comprehensive study of secondary education in Africa (SEA) coordinated by the Mastercard Foundation and supported by a number of educationpartners operating across the continent. South Africa is one of four case studies selected for this research. The study's theoretical framework was developed out of the Literature Review, which also produced a set of research questions that guided the work of all components, including this case study. Data for the case study was derived from academic and other literature, as well as interviews with key role players in the field of teacher education in Rwanda. These role players include government officials responsible for teacher education on a national and/or regional basis, teacher educators responsible for initial teacher education (ITE) and Continuous Professional Development (CPD), and teacher unions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted where possible, but some actors provided information via telephonic or electronic means.
Charities Aid Foundation (CAF);
This South Africa Giving 2019 report is one of an international series, produced across the CAF GlobalAlliance, a world-leading network of organisations working at the forefront of philanthropy and civil society.The series also includes reports covering Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, India, Russia, the United States,and the UK.This is the second edition of this unique collection of country reports. As the series grows we will be ableto look at trends in giving for the first time: why and how people of different ages and social groups givein different countries; the way they give and who they give to, as well as gaining a better understanding ofpeople's participation in social and civic activities beyond financial donations and volunteering.
This background paper engages with issues of secondary education reform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2007 and uses the MasterCard framework of questions as a template for gathering evidence. The framework seeks answers in three broad areas of reform: curriculum, assessment/examination systems and national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). It specifically invited responses to the following questions: Curriculum- What kinds of curriculum reform have occurred in SSA since 2007?- How successful has the practical implementation of new curricula been?- Given the challenges, how can resource-constrained ministries implement curriculum reform?- To what extent has a/the new curriculum promoted 21st century skills (like creativity, critical thinking, cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence), as well as employability and entrepreneurial skills? Assessment- How successful has assessment reform been? National Qualifications Framework - What is the status of implementation of NQFs across SSA?- Have the approaches to NQF implementation promoted learning and the acquisition of skills necessary for employment?To ensure greater inclusivity, and to solicit a wide range of perspectives, we have chosen to review as broad a spectrum of publications as possible. This has meant that we have included research papers that, more often than not, would have been excluded from similar types of reviews. These include graduate students' masters and doctoral theses; and research papers published in journals that are not widely recognised. The net effect of widening the pool of sources is that many more researchers from, and working in, institutions on the continent have been referenced or included in the bibliography. The evidence gathering processes involved six linked activities: x Setting the search parameters and undertaking an electronic search. vi x Reviewing the document titles and abstracts; and sifting and excluding nonrelevant documents. x Once the primary and secondary sources have been identified, using high frequency citations to identify researchers in the field for follow up processes. x Reviewing the wider scholarship of identified scholars to gather additional 'grey' literature. x Identifying case studies, based on the analysis of these preliminary sources. x Site visits and case study write-ups Two system case studies were selected for close analysis: South Africa and Ethiopia. South Africa was selected because of its experience of three separate waves of curriculum reform in the past two decades, the extensive documentation of these curriculum reforms and as one of the first systems in the world to have introduced a national qualifications framework. Ethiopia was selected as it represents a rapidly developing country in which secondary education is likely to play a key role. It was also selected because of its recent review of its secondary education curriculum and examination system.
This paper is based on a predominately desk-based literature review on national policy frameworks, specifically targeting STEM and ICT education in sub-Saharan Africa. Two country scoping exercises were conducted in Zambia and in South Africa which provided additional grey literature and data from interviews with a range of stakeholders from policymakers to students. This is intended as a forward-looking and policy-oriented paper, tol assist the MasterCard Foundation, policy makers and the international development community in implementing high quality secondary STEM and ICT education in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting disadvantaged learners in difficult delivery contexts. The specific objectives are:- To better understand the characteristics of successful national policy frameworks for increasing access for disadvantages groups of learners, including girls, learners from poor socio-economic backgrounds and speakers of minority languages, to good quality STEM and ICT in secondary education.- To identify successful strategies used to address the data gap of student performance, teacher ability and school level resources available for STEM and ICT education.- To develop a diagnostic framework enabling policy makers to analyse their particular context and identify pressure points in the system, where targeted intervention could be particularly helpful.
Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development;
This paper discusses the need to incorporate equity assessment into the planning and monitoring of sanitation service delivery to South African informal settlements. Equity assessment criteria were drawn from literature and a study of sanitation service delivery to informal settlements in three South African municipalities (Cape Town, Johannesburg and eThekwini) over the period 2012–2015. Three key dimensions of equity – resource allocation, access and stakeholder perceptions – were identified. These had eight associated criteria: (1) funds allocated for basic sanitation, (2) number of staff allocated to informal settlements, (3) disparities in access, (4) proportion of functioning sanitation facilities, (5) menstrual hygiene management (MHM) inclusion, (6) access to information, (7) meets users' notions of dignity, and (8) integration of the perspectives of key stakeholders. Key findings of the study indicate that the current focus on reducing service backlogs largely ignores equity and there is a need to better address this through the incorporation of: equity assessments, improving access to information, and the inclusion of marginalised communities in the planning of sanitation services.
Charities Aid Foundation Southern Africa;
Our analysis provides these key findings for individual giving in South Africa: Around eight in ten people surveyed (81%) have given money in the past 12 months, eitherto a charity, to a church or religious organisation, or by sponsoring someone. Donors said they are most likely to give money because they believe they can make adifference, and because they want to help those less fortunate than themselves. Amongst those who donated in the past 4 weeks, the typical (median) donation wasR500. The most common method of donating was via a donation box in a supermarket/shop,which 40% of donors had used. Six in ten people surveyed have volunteered in the past 12 months (61%), 49% havedone so for a church or religious organisation, 45% for an NPO/charity and 45% for acommunity organisation. The most popular cause amongst donors (58%) and volunteers (43%) was helping the poor. Having more money themselves is the thing most likely to encourage those surveyed todonate more time, goods or money in the coming 12 months (53%).
This paper is a review of the literature on School-Based Management (SBM defined as decision-making, and control of budget and of the curriculum at the school level) in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.The need for an improvement in the management of secondary schools in SSA is particularly criticalas SSA is lagging behind other regions in youth access to secondary schools, access to quality schoolingand developing skills in schools which open pathways to employment (Majgaard & Mingat 2012). Atthe same time the secondary school sector is expanding rapidly in most African states, with a focus onuniversal secondary education (USE). This trend is being accompanied in most countries with a driveto decentralize decision-making to these secondary schools, with much focus on SBM. Nevertheless,as Majgaard & Mingat (2012:144) assert, "with a few exceptions, schools in most Sub-Saharan Africancountries have little autonomy". Why is this still the case?
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women’s empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of an impact evaluation, carried out in January 2016. The purpose of the evaluation was to rigorously assess the effectiveness of the Raising Her Voice project in South Africa (RHV-SA), in terms of its contribution to greater women’s empowerment.Usually, evaluations under this thematic area are evaluated using quasi-experimental impact evaluation techniques. In this case, given the characteristics of the project, a different impact evaluation technique has been applied, called process tracing. Where interventions have small sample sizes for evaluators to draw from (referred to as small ‘n’ evaluations), this can make it difficult to adopt traditional counterfactual approaches to establishing causality for a range of technical and practical reasons. This is a situation typically faced in projects under Oxfam’s Good Governance outcome area (previously known as Citizen Voice and Policy Influencing). Evaluations of interventions under this outcome area are concerned with establishing whether or not they contributed to an observed change; in other words, they are concerned with assessing a causal claim. To make this type of assessment possible, Oxfam developed a pre-qualified protocol, based on process tracing.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.
On 5 March 2001, 39 of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies took the South African government to court over the terms of its 1997 Medicines Act. The Act was intended to provide a legal framework within which medicines could be made more affordable in South Africa. The companies' decision to pursue the legal proceedings initiated in 1997, despite the devastation caused by South Africa's public health crisis, sparked international condemnation. This briefing and update, produced for Oxfam's 'Cut the Cost' campaign, provide details of what became a landmark case with implications far beyond South Africa.
Centre for Civil Society (CCS) at the University of Natal & Education Policy Unit (EPU) at the University of the Witwatersrand;
The persistent rising levels of poverty in Southern Africa have prompted the questioning of some of the assumptions apparent in mainstream philanthropy. In an effort to eradicate poverty, community development initiatives have in many instances failed to engage those people they are meant to benefit with regard to both resource mobilization and policy implementation. Beneficiaries of development are dismissed as helpless objects waiting to be rescued by external good Samaritans. The living realities of poor people, such as how they live their day-today lives and their survival strategies, have been poorly understood within philanthropic thinking and public and development policy frameworks. In addition, little is known about why people in poor communities give and receive from each other and what motivates them to give. As a result, organised philanthropy or vertical giving (where the rich give to the poor) has been practiced with little knowledge and recognition of the indigenous and organic forms of community philanthropy or horizontal philanthropy - giving between and amongst the poor. For decades, poverty eradication has been at the centre of international development and social change with different development ideologies having been applied. Yet in many African countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty persists.
The following report discusses the use of Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) to improve access to, quality of, and delivery of secondary education within sub-Saharan Africa. It discusses the policy environment for ICTs in sub-Saharan Africa, their successes, challenges, andlessons learned, and it concludes with a broad and detailed set of recommendations for policymakers, donors, the private sector, designers, and implementers of ICTs in education programs. The report seeks to generally answer the question of how sub-Saharan African (SSA) governments can best use technology to improve access to secondary education, improve learning, strengthen management of schools and the education system, and foster innovation.