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The Resilience, Food Security and Nutrition Project (Projet de Résilience, Sécurité Alimentaire et Nutritionnelle, PRSAN) was carried out in the North and Centre-North regions of Burkina Faso between 2013 and 2017 by Oxfam and Christian Aid, together with two implementing partners, the Alliance Technique d'Assistance au Développement (ATAD) and the Office de Développement des Églises Evangéliques (ODE). The project was aimed at enabling particularly vulnerable households to increase their resilience and improve their food security and nutritional situation. Project activities included supporting households in crop production, market gardening, processing and household businesses, providing awareness-raising on good nutritional practices, carrying out community-level disaster assessments and establishing early-warning committees, and distributing livestock and cash transfers. The Effectiveness Review was aimed at evaluating the success of this project in enabling participants to build their resilience to shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This report is part of Oxfam's Effectiveness Review Series.
In Burkina Faso, the vulnerability of farmers to climate risks and variations in the pricing of staple foods is a serious problem for rural areas. Warrantage is used in West Africa to describe the inventory credit system: granting credit to farmers with grain as collateral in secure warehouses, where a third independent party holds the collateral on behalf of both the creditor and the debtor. Warrantage could contribute to increasing the resilience of farming communities to shocks, improving food insecurity. Oxfam in Burkina Faso and the Federation of Agricultural Professionals of Burkina Faso (FEPAB) support warrantage in the south-western zone of Burkina Faso.
This report examines the contribution of warrantage to resilience in the light of the Oxfam Framework for Resilient Development: it contributes to the ability to absorb shocks through the reduction of harmful coping strategies, and the ability to adapt through livelihood diversification. However, its contribution is not on the same scale for all socioeconomic groups. Benefits are limited by the intermittent participation of very poor and poor groups; they depend on climatic hazards which determine the quantity of crops; and the fact that poor farmers often do not solicit credit. Unequal power relations between socio-economic groups and between women and men should also be considered in interventions.
Au Burkina les partenaires au développement financent la grande majorité des investissements dans le secteur agricole. Au moment de l'élaboration de la deuxième phase du PNSR, les enjeux liés à la coordination et à l'alignement prennent une importance particulière afin d'éviter les duplications et les incohérences, et garantir l'atteinte des résultats du plan global de développement du secteur agricole. L'engagement pris à Malabo en 2014 devant l'Union Africaine de promouvoir « la croissance et la transformation accélérées de l'agriculture en Afrique pour une prospérité partagée et de meilleures conditions de vie », ne sera pas possibles sans cet alignement.
Aid effectiveness and coordination in Burkina Faso: The agricultural sector and food security
In Burkina Faso, development partners finance a great majority of investment within the agricultural sector. With the formulation of the country's second National Programme for the Rural Sector (NPRS) currently under way, issues linked to coordination and alignment are of particular importance, in order to avoid duplications and inconsistencies and ensure the goals of the new NPRS are eventually met. The commitment made in Malabo in 2014, before the African Union, to promote 'accelerated agricultural growth and transformation for shared prosperity and improved livelihoods' will not be possible without this alignment.
This report recommends that the Government of Burkina Faso strengthen its institutions and its national procedures to ensure the implementation of the new NPRS. Also, development partners should increase the effectiveness, alignment and coordination of their activities during the development of the new NPRS.
IRC International Water and Sanitation Center;
In May 2015, African leaders committed to budget allocations amounting to 0.5% of their countries'respective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to sanitation and hygiene by 2020. Specifically, thiscommitment was part of the Ngor Declaration adopted at the fourth African Conference on Sanitationand Hygiene (AfricaSan) by ministers responsible for sanitation and hygiene.1 This brief explores thecontext of this commitment: how much are governments currently investing in sanitation? How can thisinvestment be increased?
Access to credit and effective storage for grain are two issues affecting small-scale farmers in Burkina Faso. Warrantage, a French word commonly used in West Africa, describes the inventory credit system (normally called the warehouse receipt system, or WRS, in English). This means granting credit with grain as collateral in secure warehouses where a third independent party holds the collateral on behalf of both the creditor and the debtor.
In Burkina Faso, farmers' organizations have used 'smallholder' warrantage for several years. In this storage system, farmers keep part of their harvest in their own stores secured by two locks. One key is held by the farmers, while the second is held by the microfinance institution, with no third party involved. Warrantage allows both access to credit for income-generating activities and adequate grain storage, thereby contributing to the better preservation of crops, as well as better household management of food and money. Warrantage is more popular in the southern and south-west areas of the country, where there is a surplus production of grain, while in areas further north (where crops are scarce), pilot schemes are only just emerging. This report describes how warrantage operates and provides an analysis of its economic viability in the Centre-Nord region of Burkina Faso.
Please note: This report is only available in French.
In the Sahel, social protection policies related to food security play a crucial role in improving the well-being of the population. Organizations working on food security in the region (farmer organizations as well as consumer organizations) can benefit from examining these policies and the concrete measures introduced, which can help to facilitate the design of response strategies and local development measures in crisis situations.
This report examines the functioning of the boutiques témoin network in Burkina Faso, a social protection measure which seeks to improve access to food. It notes some of the impacts of this measure on farmers, traders and local food reserves.
Boutiques témoin could be seen as complementary to other social protection measures with targeted beneficiaries; however, the lack of legal precision describing them suggests that the programme is also guided by political interests and is not part of a coordinated strategy.
The report suggests further investigation of the impact that the measure could have on grain producers and traders, in order to avoid adverse effects on the cereal sector. It invites the Burkina Faso government to review the effectiveness of the boutiques témoin programme and the resources allocated to it; to consider establishing selection criteria for the target population; to strengthen the links between the national reserves and small producers, as well as between the national reserves and local food reserves.
Social protection policies related to food security in Burkina Faso play a crucial role in improving the well-being of the population.
This report examines the school feeding programme in Burkina Faso; looking at the way it works and identifying key good practices. The government's stable commitment and the gradually planned handover by WFP and CRS are key factors for the continuation of the programme.
Other positive aspects include the links to national reserves, the active participation of communities and appropriate geographic targeting. The specific procedures to promote the enrolment and attendance of girls are also positively assessed.
The report's recommendations include: ensuring a stable budget; paying the school cooks; promoting local purchases; ensuring food availability during the lean season; connecting the school feeding programme with other health and nutrition-related initiatives; improving programme monitoring; and strengthening the capacity of all actors involved.
A case study on the CCRP-funded project "Sustaining Farmer-Managed Seed Initiatives in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso".
This report deals with the issues, or rather, with the responses to the 2012 food crisis in the Sahel, from a gender perspective. The field research, which was conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger, builds on past work and reflects the statements made by local people.
The report finds that household resilience is inconceivable without rural women. And further, households in which women have a greater stake in decision making regarding food are that much more resilient.
With continued food insecurity, the perception of the role of women in Sahelian society is evolving, with the concept of an ideal woman as one who has a greater involvement in taking care of household needs. The image of the woman who expects her husband to provide for everything seems to be increasingly a thing of the past.
Launched by the G8 two years ago, the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition (NASAN) aims to improve food security in 10 African countries through attracting private investors into agriculture. However, in Burkina Faso, implementation of the New Alliance risks harming rather than helping family farming and food security. Burkina Faso is deregulating its farming sector, to attract big agribusiness investors, and enacting political reforms (including tax reform and land access reform) that will exclude smallholder farmers from investment opportunities and endanger food security.
In this paper, Oxfam again denounces the unacceptable risks surrounding the G8 New Alliance initiative. The New Alliance in Burkina Faso is paving the way for growing agribusiness investments and smallholder farmer marginalization. The set-up of the New Alliance in Burkina Faso needs to be reviewed, based on food security and nutrition objectives. Civil society organisations and those affected by the initiative should be consulted throughout the process; and risks to smallholder agriculture need to be urgently mitigated. Urgent reforms are needed to strengthen existing accountability and measurement mechanisms and to ensure that smallholder farmers, particularly women, are seen as the priority investors in agriculture.
Cette étude avait pour objectif de montrer que la corruption existe dans les marchés publics de matériels et de fournitures de bureau et que sa pratique était bénéfique aux PME attributaires de marchés publics. Pour y parvenir, nous avons estimé différents modèles à l'aide de la méthode TSPLS et celle de Heckman et utiliser des données d'enquêtes primaires de 351 PME des villes de Ouagadougou et de Bobo-Dioulasso du Burkina Faso.
Cela n'est plus à démontrer, les petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) jouent un rôle important dans l'économie du Burkina Faso. Seulement, ce rôle est limité par la faiblesse de la demande privée. Les marchés publics constituent dans ce contexte une alternative de premier choix. Pourtant, la soumission à l'attribution de marchés publics peut aussi être un danger pour les PME. La passation des marchés publics est affectée par la corruption qui conduit le plus souvent à la faillite des PME. Pour étudier cette problématique, la présente recherche s'est donnée pour objectif d'identifier les raisons de la persistance de la corruption dans les marchés publics de matériels et de fournitures de bureau au Burkina Faso. Les analyses montrent que les raisons qui poussent les entrepreneurs à participer activement à la corruption sont de deux ordres. Certains s'y adonnent parce que c'est un moyen d'enrichissement facile, d'autres parce que soumettre un dossier avec un ratio qualité-prix optimal n'est pas suffisant pour être attributaire d'un marché public au Burkina Faso.