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This rapid review report has identified the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) options used in emergency settings, with decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) and mobile wastewater treatment units performing most effectively and with minimal costs. Examples are taken from refugee camps and internally displaced people (IDP) settlements due to the Iraq war, the Israeli-Palestine conflict, and the civil wars in Syria and Sudan. WWTP options used in Finland, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Sudan and Turkey are discussed. Lessons learned from China and suggestions for the Rohingya crisis are also included.
Institute of Development Studies (IDS);
A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces. Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries. As requested, a number of experts were consulted for their opinion where there was a lack of project evaluations or grey literature.
Iraq faces severe pressures on its water resources following years of conflict and under-investment in infrastructure. This research focuses on the state of water resources in Kirkuk governorate in the north of the country and identifies the main challenges that need to be addressed. The research report and accompanying briefing note recommend a collaborative approach to water management between government, INGOs in the WASH sector and local communities and water users (including those involved in agriculture, industry and electricity generation). It is hoped that the recommendations will inform approaches to water management across the country as a whole and in the wider Middle East region.Ã‚Â
This gender and conflict analysis of ISIS-affected communities of Iraq aims to improve understanding of gender dynamics in the context of conflict and displacement. The report sets out to identify the differential impact of ISIS occupation on women, girls, men and boys in order to explore shifts in prevailing gender norms held by study participants in Anbar, Salah Al Din and Nineveh governorates of Iraq. The objective is to enhance the understanding of the social pressures women and men experience when aiming to conform to context-specific gendered expectations of masculinity and femininity, in order to derive concrete recommendations for gender-responsive and conflict-sensitive humanitarian and recovery programming.
This report sets out the findings of a seven-month qualitative study commissioned by Oxfam and conducted in Lebanon, Jordan and Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) by researchers from the American University of Beirut. The aim of the study was to explore the role customary institutions play in maintaining gender inequality, and how changes in individual perceptions and attitudes on gender equality can lead to changes in the social and political spheres. Stakeholders and focus group participants discussed their views on a range of issues including women's economic participation; the role of media and education in driving change; religious interpretation; and what gender equality means in practice.
International Rescue Committee;
Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, was captured by ISIS in June 2014 and remains under their control. The Iraqi army has vowed to recapture Mosul and the speculation is that a counter-offensive is imminent - a military operation which could have dramatic humanitarian implications. A large influx of internally displaced persons (IDPs) fleeing towards the Ninewa plains would have an impact on markets in the area.
All humanitarian interventions have an impact on markets, and understanding market dynamics is fundamental to (1) doing no harm, (2) increasing efficiency and effectiveness and (3) strengthening both emergency response and livelihoods promotion interventions.
This report describes an exercise carried out in February 2016 by Oxfam and the International Rescue Committee (IRC) using Pre-Crisis Market Analysis (PCMA) to inform preparedness and emergency response interventions by understanding the market systems that are critical to supporting the basic needs and livelihoods recovery needs of populations affected by displacement in the Ninewa plains. The full report is available at http://www.emma-toolkit.org/report/pcma-northern-iraq-credit-water-wheatflour
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF);
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. As such, its elimination is a global concern. In 2012, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a milestone resolution calling on the international community to intensify efforts to end the practice. More recently, in September 2015, the global community agreed to a new set of development goals -- the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) -- which includes a target under Goal 5 to eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and FGM/C, by the year 2030. Both the resolution and the SDG framework signify the political will of the international community and national partners to work together to accelerate action towards a total, and final, end to the practice in all continents of the world. More and better data are needed to measure progress towards this common goal.
In the aftermath of the rapid advance of Daesh through central parts of Iraq, a humanitarian crisis of significant proportion remains. Since March 2015, over 458,000 people have returned to their places of origin. Many have been driven by government guarantees of improved security coupled with a lack of access to land, food and income generating activities in displacement sites. They have returned under precarious conditions, without the support required to ensure progress towards durable solutions, and they rely on assistance to recover and rebuild. Efforts must be made to ensure that returns are safe, dignified and sustainable. This paper outlines the current situation and provides recommendations for the Government of Iraq, UN agencies, donors and NGOs.
The Constitution Project's blue-ribbon Task Force on Detainee Treatment is made up of former high-ranking officials with distinguished careers in the judiciary, Congress, the diplomatic service, law enforcement, the military, and other parts of the executive branch, as well as recognized experts in law, medicine and ethics. The group includes conservatives and liberals, Republicans and Democrats. The Task Force was charged with providing the American people with a broad understanding of what is known -- and what may still be unknown -- about the past and current treatment of suspected terrorists detained by the U.S. government during the Clinton, Bush and Obama administrations.
This report is the product of more than two years of research, analysis and deliberation by the Task Force members and staff. It is based on a thorough examination of available public records and interviews with more than 100 people, including former detainees, military and intelligence officers, interrogators and policymakers. It is a comprehensive record of detainee treatment across multiple administrations and multiple geographic theatres -- Iraq, Afghanistan, Guantánamo and the so-called "black sites" -- yet published.
Armed violence is the greatest threat facing Iraqis, but the population is also experiencing another kind of crisis of an alarming scale and severity. Eight million people are in urgent need of emergency aid; that figure includes over two million who are displaced within the country, and more than two million refugees. Many more are living in poverty, without basic services, and increasingly threatened by disease and malnutrition. Despite the constraints imposed by violence, the government of Iraq, the United Nations, and international donors can do more to deliver humanitarian assistance to reduce unnecessary suffering. If people's basic needs are left unattended, this will only serve to further destabilise the country.
The Iraqi people are already in a highly vulnerable situation. With Iraq's basic infrastructures eroded by decades of war, national mismanagement and twelve years of sanctions, another war in Iraq will have devastating humanitarian consequences for the civilian population. For that reason, Oxfam remains convinced that military action is unjustifiable. One vital way to protect Iraq's vulnerable civilians is to avert a war.
The war continues and many outcomes are possible. There is already a debate on the shape of Iraq.s reconstruction. This briefing note proposes principles of how the international community should assist the people of Iraq in establishing their own administration after the war. It does not seek to set out a precise model. Our proposals are based on our experience and lessons from Kosovo, Bosnia, East Timor and Afghanistan. Oxfam also played a significant role in the immediate and medium-term reconstruction of Iraq after the first Gulf War.