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This evaluation report sets out the main findings from the Fostering Community Change in the Occupied Palestinian Territories Project, which ran from April 2010-November 2012.The DFID-funded Within and Without the State programme co-financed this EU-funded project which worked to strengthen the capacity of Palestinian civil society to identify its needs and priorities, and engage with power holders around these issues.The evaluation details the areas of assessment, and makes recommendations for the future of the work in the West Bank and the design of future governance programmes.
In April 2006, key donors including the USA, EU, and Canada suspended international aid to the Palestinian Authority government (PA), following the overwhelming victory of Hamas in parliamentary elections. The Government of Israel had previously suspended the transfer of the tax and customs revenues it collects on behalf of the PA.
The upcoming Israeli-Palestinian meeting in Annapolis, Maryland provides an opportunity to address the humanitarian crisis, which is an essential step for successful negotiations leading to the end of the occupation of Palestine, and for delivering a just settlement and lasting peace for Palestinians and Israelis alike. Since January 2006, the people in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) have faced increasing suffering due to an array of policies adopted by the government of Israel and Western donors in the aftermath of Hamas' victory in the parliamentary elections. For its part, Hamas has failed to stop armed Palestinian groups from undertaking indiscriminate rocket attacks on Israel. These attacks are unacceptable and must end. The Israeli government's blockade of the Gaza Strip constitutes collective punishment and cannot be justified.
The 12 month project 'Increasing Food and Livelihood Security in the OPT' focused on South Hebron, the Jordan Valley and the Gaza Strip. The objective was to increase and diversify household food and cash income sources of vulnerable households. This final evaluation aims to assess the project's appropriateness and impact on the beneficiaries and to guide similar future food security interventions in the OPT.
The 'Promoting Food Security in the Occupied Palestinian Territories' project was implemented from August 2006 - July 2007. Its principal objective was to contribute to reducing poverty and food insecurity in the OPT, with a focus on decreasing household food insecurity for vulnerable families in Western Hebron Governorate and Gaza. This final evaluation aims to: assess the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the intervention; measure the degree of integration of cross-cutting issues, namely link with development (LRRD), gender, rights-based and participatory approaches; and act as a learning experience for the Oxfam GB team in the OPT.
IIE Center for Academic Mobility Research & Impact;
The fourth report from our 10-year tracking study of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), Transformational Leaders and Social Change provides important insights into the personal, organizational, community, and societal impacts of IFP alumni in Kenya, Nigeria, Palestine, and South Africa, drawn from the perspectives of 361 IFP alumni and local stakeholders.The results of this study show that the program had a positive impact on participants, with alumni saying that their IFP experience increased their confidence, awareness, self-identity, commitment, leadership, career advancement despite challenges upon re-entry at the end of the fellowship. Some alumni returned to face career barriers endemic to their community and home region, such as high unemployment rates and other labor market challenges. At an organizational level, alumni and community stakeholders said that these organizations now have a stronger work ethic, consistency, transparency, and accountability since alumni returned to their home communities. Stakeholders also said that the alumni they work with are more reliable and committed to getting the job done.
United Nations Environment Assembly of the United Nations Environment Programme;
The spread of land degradation and desertification and its economic and environmental consequences are the "most critical challenges" facing West Asian countries. The scarcity of the region's renewable water resources also poses a major challenge, denting the region's ability to produce enough food to meet the growing population's needs.DriversArable land degradation is caused by mismanagement, climate change and water scarcity.Climate scenarios project changes in the region's temperature, rainfall and sea level, which will have impacts on both the availability and use of water resources.High population growth and continuous conflicts and wars mean that the carrying capacity of the land has become too low to support people with freshwater and food.Shrinking of agricultural lands is caused by population growth, urbanization, land degradation and desertification.Increasing water demand has exacerbated the region's serious water scarcity and exerted pressure on groundwater extractions rates.West Asia has been recognized as one of the major regions where sand and dust storms originate causing environmental, social and economic impacts.ImpactsFood security in the region will be increasingly at risk, especially in the Mashriq countries and Yemen.Land degradation has accelerated the rise of soil salinity, increased the rate of soil erosion and converted wetland to dryland.Overexploitation of groundwater resources has resulted in a deterioration of water quality, seawater intrusion, depletion and salinization of aquifers, and rising pumping costs.A prevalence of climate extremes and forecasted climate change may exacerbate the extent of land degradation and water scarcity in the region.Water demand in West Asia has been increasing, resulting in a diminishing per-person availability of water. Only 4 out of 12 countries in West Asia are above the water scarcity limit of 1,000 cubic metres per person per year.Due to its aridity and water scarcity, the region has already surpassed its natural capacity to meet its own food and water demand.Examples97 per cent of Iraq's total area is arid, about 50 per cent of which is desert. Desertification affects 39 per cent of the country's surface area with an additional 54 per cent under threat.Although Iraq has the largest area of available farmland in the region, it suffers the most from soil salinity and wind erosion.Rangeland in Jordan covers more than 80 per cent of the country's total area, mainly used for pastoralism and agriculture. Conflicts over land-use and general mismanagement have led to overgrazing, land degradation and ultimately desertification. Livestock overgrazing is, possibly, the main cause of land deterioration and means that the land is no longer able to support the livestock that used to graze there.ResponsesReuse domestic wastewater and recycle agricultural drainage water, groundwater inter-basin transfer, seawater and brackish water desalination.Use of brackish and sea water for bio-saline and halophyte agriculture desalination can enhance the water availability throughout the region.Integrated monitoring is essential to understanding the causes and consequences of desertification.Efforts to combat land degradation and desertification in the region should capitalize on advances in science and technology for devising and up-scaling remedial and preventive measures.Regional cooperation is key for combatting desertification, drought and dust storms.
Highlights: The West Bank faces serious problems with its governance and anti-corruption framework, not surprising given the territory's conflict-riddled history. Civil society, government accountability, administration and civil service, and the rule of law are all rated as very weak. Other bad news includes an ineffective audit institution, weak regulations on political financing, and a lack of institutional mechanisms through which citizens can gain access to public information. Nevertheless, there is some good news. There is a relatively strong ombudsman office, voting and election monitoring are generally inclusive and secure, and the justice system is accessible and fair to most citizens.This peer-reviewed country report includes:Integrity Indicators Scorecard: Scores, scoring criteria, commentary, references, and peer review perspectives for more than 300 Integrity Indicators.Reporter's Notebook: An on-the-ground look at corruption and integrity from a leading local journalist.Corruption Timeline: Ten years of political context to today's corruption and integrity issues.Country Facts: Statistical context for each country.
Institute of Developmental Studies;
This rapid review report has identified the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) options used in emergency settings, with decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) and mobile wastewater treatment units performing most effectively and with minimal costs. Examples are taken from refugee camps and internally displaced people (IDP) settlements due to the Iraq war, the Israeli-Palestine conflict, and the civil wars in Syria and Sudan. WWTP options used in Finland, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Sudan and Turkey are discussed. Lessons learned from China and suggestions for the Rohingya crisis are also included.
Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC);
This publication shares and analyses people's sense of threats and safety through the lens of human security. Spanning six regions of the world, it presents the accounts of people living in Afghanistan, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Zimbabwe, Ukraine, Mexico, and the Philippines. As a people-centred approach to understanding threats to people's livelihoods, safety and dignity, human security is useful as both an analytical tool and an operational approach for addressing socio-political problems.
Search For Common Ground;
The case studies in this book were prepared by members of Search for Common Ground's Middle East Chemical Risks Consortium (CRC)-- a group of Egyptian, Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian research centers that agreed to reach across political lines and cooperate to address the problem of chemical risks. Each research center partcipating in the CRC chose a recent case of a local accident involving toxic chemicals. The cases highlight legal, technical, operational, and human factors contributing to the accident and draw lessons applicable in any country. Unlike the notorious 1984 Bhopal chemical factory accident in India, these incidents received relatively little media coverage and almost no publicly available analysis.
This is the first-ever impact report of CARE's water+ program, which currently comprises more than 180 projects in over 40 countries. The study is a meta-analysis of 51 project evaluations, each scored against the three domains of the water+ theory of change: secure and sustainable access to services; gender-sensitive policies, institutions and norms; and gender-equitable control over services. Ten projects are also presented as case studies. The report concludes that there is a need to re-assess programming approaches and make more deliberate efforts to use water+ programs to orchestrate broader change.