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This report summarizes the main findings of the recent research, revisiting the reasons why addressing diversity and equity issues in the cultural sector matters more than ever and reviewing six key findings related to national and local patterns of funding distribution, the demographics of people making funding decisions, and the distinct issues facing cultural organizations whose primary artistic mission is to serve communities of color or low-income communities. It concludes with suggestions for how to speed progress toward a more inclusive and equitable system of cultural philanthropy.
Despite broad interest in estimating the economic costs of gun violence at the national and individual levels, we know little about how local economies respond to increased gun violence, especially sharp and sudden increases (or surges) in gun violence.
Our report found that surges in gun violence can significantly reduce the growth of new retail and service businesses and slow home value appreciation. Higher levels of neighborhood gun violence can be associated with fewer retail and service establishments and fewer new jobs. Higher levels of gun violence were also associated with lower home values, credit scores, and homeownership rates.
Interviews with local stakeholders (homeowners, renters, business owners, non-profits, etc.) in six cities across the United States confirmed that the findings match their experience. Business owners in neighborhoods that experience heightened gun violence reported additional challenges and costs, and residents and business owners alike asserted that gun violence hurts housing prices and drives people to relocate from or avoid moving to affected neighborhoods.
Some of the report's key findings include:
Impact of Gun Violence Surges on Local Business Growth, Home Values, Homeownership Rates, and Credit Scores across Cities
Gun homicide surges in census tracts reduced the growth rate of new retail and service establishments by 4 percent in Minneapolis, Oakland, San Francisco, and Washington, DC.
Gun homicide surges in census tracts slowed home value appreciation by 3.9 percent in Baton Rouge, Minneapolis, Oakland, San Francisco, and Washington, DC.
Gunshot surges in census tracts slowed home value appreciation by 3.6 percent in Oakland, Rochester, San Francisco, and Washington, DC.
Neither gun homicide nor gunshot surges were observed to reduce homeownership rates or credit scores in these cities. Homeownership rates might not fall as quickly as home values in response to sudden surges in gun violence because selling a home and moving may take a long time or may simply not be feasible for some residents.
Relationships between Gun Violence and Business Outcomes, Home Values, Homeownership Rates, and Credit Scores within Cities
In Minneapolis, each additional gun homicide in a census tract in a given year was associated with 80 fewer jobs the next year.
In Oakland, each additional gun homicide in a census tract in a given year was associated with 5 fewer jobs in shrinking businesses the next year.
In Washington, DC, every 10 additional gunshots in a census tract in a given year were associated with 20 fewer jobs among new establishments, one less new business opening, and one more business closing the same year.
In San Francisco, there was no association between levels of gun violence in census tracts in a given year and business outcomes the next year.
Analysis of gun homicides in 2014 and home values, homeownership rates, and credit scores in 2015 demonstrated that each additional gun homicide in a census tract was associated with the following outcomes:
A $22,000 decrease in average home values in Minneapolis census tracts and a $24,621 decrease in Oakland census tracts.
A 20-point decrease in average credit scores in Minneapolis census tracts and a 9-point decrease in Oakland census tracts.
A 3 percent decrease in homeownership rates in Washington, DC, census tracts and a 1 percent decrease in Baton Rouge census tracts.
There were no associations between gun homicides in a given year and home values, homeownership rates, and credit scores the next year in Minneapolis, Oakland, San Francisco, or Washington, DC, census tracts from 2009 to 2014 or in Baton Rouge census tracts from 2011 to 2014.
This case study illustrates how Creative Placemaking, the deliberate integration of arts and culture into comprehensive community development, can serve as a critical catalyst in forming equitable living and working solutions for all the social, economic, and racial constituencies of a neighborhood. It also shows how Creative Placemaking depends on collaboration across several different sectors, each with different goals, mind-sets, work styles, and skills. In the Brookland-Edgewood case, the multi-sector network of stakeholders included a forward-thinking government agency, a visionary nonprofit, a private developer, and the existing residents of a disadvantaged neighborhood.
MedStar's program offers round-the-clock access to a care team comprising a geriatrician, nurse practitioner, and social worker. The house calls reveal and address problems that are missed when care is poorly coordinated, enabling team members to identify social supports for patients that can improve quality of life, reduce the burden on caregivers, and head off problems that can lead to high-cost institutional care.
Based on the cost savings it achieved, the program became one of the models for the federal Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation's Independence at Home Demonstration, which is testing whether providing primary care at home to frail elderly patients with multiple chronic conditions or advanced illnesses improves outcomes and lowers health care spending. MedStar participates in the demonstration as part of a consortium that includes Virginia Commonwealth University and University of Pennsylvania Health System, both of which are implementing an approach similar to MedStar's. The consortium is one of nine participating groups to earn a share of the savings they produced for Medicare.
Wallace Foundation, The;
Principals have a difficult job. It requires them to be instructional leaders, managers and mentors, all with the goal of helping every student succeed.
How can school districts provide principals the support they need to excel in this challenging position? Two knowledge products—A Story From the Field and a WNET-produced video, School Leadership in Action: Principal Supervisors—explore how some school districts are responding to that question by remaking the job of the principal's supervisor.
The idea—to shape a job focused squarely on helping principals improve instruction—represents a dramatic break with the conventional notion of the principal supervisor as a bureaucratic enforcer of principal compliance with regulations.
The article and video profile efforts in two districts, Tulsa and Washington, D.C., that have rethought the supervisor's job, in part by giving supervisors fewer schools to oversee. The result is that supervisors now are fixtures in Tulsa and D.C. schools, doing things like classroom walkthroughs to observe what's working and what isn't—then sitting down with principals to discuss solutions. "I can't imagine doing this job without her," one novice D.C. principal says of her supervisor, who is helping her face such challenges as closing an achievement gap between African-American and white students.
Changing the supervisor's job is no easy task. In addition to finding funding for the work—assigning each supervisor fewer schools means increasing the number of supervisors—district leaders face initial wariness from both principals and central office staff members. Supervisors, for their part, don't necessarily step into the job fully prepared to tackle it; so each district provides the supervisors with a considerable amount of professional development. Even with that, supervisors need to figure out how to reconcile two seemingly contradictory roles: developing a trusting relationship with principals while also being their judges in job performance evaluations.
Both Tulsa and Washington, D.C., school districts receive Wallace support as part of the foundation's Principal Supervisor Initiative, which seeks to help participating districts and generate lessons for the broader field.
Health Care Cost Institute;
Children's Health Spending: 2010-2014 examines spending on health care for children covered by employer-sponsored insurance from 2010 to 2014. For the first time, HCCI analyzed children's health care spending trends at the state level, reporting on Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Ohio, Texas, Virginia, and Wisconsin, as well as the District of Columbia.
Per capita spending on health care for children grew an annual average of 5.1% per year between 2010 and 2014, reaching $2,660 in 2014.
Rising prices were the chief driver of growth in spending for children's health care in 2014.
At the same time, there was a general decline in the use of health care services between 2012 and 2014.
Among the states studied, Arizona had the lowest per capita spending ($2,151 per child in 2014), while Wisconsin had higher per capita and out-of-pocket spending than the national average in every year studied – reaching $3,017 per capita in 2014.
In 2014, the Citi Foundation launched Pathways to Progress, a three-year, $50 million initiative in the United States to help 100,000 low-income youth -- ages 16 to 24 -- develop the workplace skills and leadership experience necessary to compete in a 21st century economy.
To achieve its ambitious goal, the Foundation enacted a multi-tiered strategy in ten cities: Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York City, Newark, St. Louis, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C. The U.S. strategy also includes complementary national and local investments, including the Boys and Girls Clubs of America, the National Academy Foundation, and the National Association for Urban Debate Leagues. In addition to the core and complementary program investments, the Citi Foundation's multitiered strategy includes substantial volunteer engagement by Foundation employees, and a significant communications platform -- augmenting grantee organizations' efforts to share their impact with the field.
In its efforts to advance youth economic opportunity on a significant scale, the Citi Foundation has invested in solutions that offer promise of sizeable and replicable impact.
DC Fiscal Policy Institute;
The District of Columbia (DC) is a vibrant, diverse, financially stable city that has become one of the most expensive places to live in the nation. It also ranks among the five major U.S. cities with the greatest income inequality. Because of this economic divide, the District struggles to create equity among its population, particularly in education where the achievement gap between poor and wealthy stubbornly persists. Research has consistently shown that this achievement gap begins not in kindergarten, but in the cradle, with the differences between the early learning environments of children who live in low-income and upper-income households producing cognitive differences before a child even reaches the public school system. Access to high-quality early learning environments can reduce or even eliminate that gap, which is why District policymakers have invested heavily in quality universal preschool and Pre-Kindergarten. But children from low-income households can already be cognitively behind by preschool, so the District must also invest in the early education needs of its infants and toddlers.
This report attempts to quantify and qualify what investment need to be made. Until now, no one has assessed how much it costs early care and education (ECE) providers to meet the level of quality that the District requires, or how providers are able to maintain quality while serving families who depend on child care subsidy payments from the government. DC Appleseed and the DC Fiscal Policy Institute have collaborated to produce a study to better understand these realities. The work grew from concern that the District's payment rates to ECE providers for the child care subsidy program are not keeping up with the costs, even though the children receiving subsidized services and the nearly 200 providers who serve them are among the District's most vulnerable and precious resources. The underpaid workforce that cares for and educates infants and toddlers is essentially subsidizing the system through low wages.
Cities for Financial Empowerment Fund;
Across the country, municipal Summer Youth Employment Programs (SYEPs) provide hundreds of thousands of young people, often from low-income communities, with short-term work experience and a regular paycheck. Building off this existing, widespread infrastructure and connection to young people, the Citi Foundation and the Cities for Financial Empowerment Fund (CFE Fund) saw an opportunity to connect young workers to bank accounts and targeted financial education, turning this large-scale youth employment program into a linchpin for building long-term positive financial behaviors. More broadly, Summer Jobs Connect (SJC) demonstrates how banking access efforts can be embedded in municipal infrastructure, a core goal of the CFE Fund's national Bank On initiative.
Corporation for Enterprise Development (CFED);
The Assets & Opportunity Scorecard is a comprehensive look at Americans' financial security today and their opportunities to create a more prosperous future. It assesses the 50 states and the District of Columbia on 130 outcome and policy measures, which describe how well residents are faring and what states are doing to help them build and protect assets. The Scorecard enables states to benchmark their outcomes and policies against other states in five issue areas: Financial Assets & Income, Businesses & Jobs, Housing & Homeownership, Health Care, and Education.
According to a new study conducted jointly by the United Way of the National Capital Area (United Way NCA) and Deloitte, the Washington, D.C. metro-area may be falling short when it comes to mentoring. According to the Greater Washington, D.C. State of Mentoring Report, 70% of mentoring organizations throughout the National Capital Community responded that they "did not have enough mentors to effectively provide quality mentoring services to young people in their communities."
The report also found that the two most prevalent challenges facing mentoring organizations throughout the National Capital Community include funding (72%) and recruitment of enough volunteer mentors (65%). In addition to funding and volunteer mentor recruitment, the study also shows additional challenges facing mentoring organizations servicing the Greater Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Some of those additional challenges include:
58% of organizations noted that they have a wait list of young people who are looking for mentors.
48% attributed this wait list to a lack of volunteers signing up to be mentors.
Only 51% of mentoring relationships in the Greater Washington, D.C. area lasted more than two years, compared to 69% nationally.
Washington Area Women's Foundation;
In this report, Washington Area Women's Foundation finds that turning the corner on poverty for women and girls in our region is within our grasp. The key is investing in women and girls with a gender lens, and tapping into the unprecedented giving potential of women philanthropists in our region.